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W = Work

  1. History of manual work. Notable NSW occupations include builders, carpenters, labourers, truck drivers and nurses.
  2. Work history includes job dissatisfaction, a pattern of frequent job changes, or poor vocational direction.
  3. The belief that work is harmful, that it will do damage or be dangerous.
  4. Unsupportive or unhappy environment at work. This might include stress, poor relationship with peers or supervisors, or being subject to disciplinary action.
  5. Low educational background and/or low socio-economic status.
  6. The job involves significant bio-mechanical demands. For example lifting, manual handling of heavy items, prolonged sitting/standing/driving, vibration, maintenance of constrained or sustained posture, or an inflexible work schedule that prevents appropriate breaks.
  7. The job involves shift work or hours that are unsociable and/or not family-friendly.
  8. Casual work, labour hire.