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T = Treatment and diagnosis

  1. Health professional sanctioning disability. For example, the health professional may not support recovery at work or provide interventions to improve function.
  2. Nominated treating doctor fails to respond to communication from the insurer and/or providers.
  3. Conflicting diagnoses or explanations for pain.
  4. Diagnostic language increasing a sense of fear and leading to the perception of the injury as a catastrophe. For example, the worker may fear they will end up in a wheelchair.
  5. Dramatisation of pain of musculoskeletal origin by health professional producing dependency on treatment.
  6. Provider continues symptom-focused treatment in the absence of improvement in functional outcomes. For example, continued treatment resulting in no upgrade of functional and/or work capacity.
  7. Number of visits to health professional(s) in last year excluding the present injury. More visits may increase risk of continuing disability.
  8. Expectation of a mechanical or technical "fix".
  9. Advice to withdraw from work.