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T = Treatment and diagnosis

  1. Health professional sanctioning disability. For example, not supporting recovery at work, not providing interventions that will improve function.
  2. Nominated treating doctor fails to respond to communication by insurer/providers.
  3. Conflicting diagnoses or explanations for pain.
  4. Diagnostic language leading to the perception of the injury as a catastrophe and fear. For example, the fear of ending up in a wheelchair.
  5. Dramatisation of pain of musculoskeletal origin by health professional producing dependency on treatments.
  6. Continuation of symptom-focused treatment by provider in the absence of improvement in functional outcomes. For example, continued treatment resulting in no upgrade of functional and/or work capacity.
  7. Number of visits to health professional(s) in last year excluding the present injury (more visits may increase risk of continuing disability).
  8. Expectation of a mechanical or technical "fix".
  9. Advice to withdraw from work.