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B = Behaviours

  1. Use of extended rest, disproportionate "downtime".
  2. Reduced activity level with significant withdrawal from activities of daily living, particularly work.
  3. Irregular participation or poor compliance with physical exercise or activity.
  4. Tendency for activities to be in a "boom-bust" or "do too much-pay for it later" cycle.
  5. Avoidance of normal activity and progressive substitution of a lifestyle away from work/productive activities.
  6. Has not returned to work within the usual time frame for injury type. For example, outside normal clinical guidelines.
  7. Report of intense pain - above 10 on a 0 to 10 scale.
  8. Excessive reliance on aids or appliances.
  9. Sleep quality reduced since onset of pain.
  10. High intake of alcohol or other substances, possibly as self-medication, with an increase since onset of pain.
  11. Smoking.