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Claims handling guidelines

These Guidelines were used by all NSW CTP insurers for claims active before 1 January 2017. On 1 January 2017, they were replaced by the (current) motor accident guidelines: claims handling and medical (treatment, rehabilitation and care).

Introduction

The MAA Claims Handling Guidelines (the Guidelines) were made pursuant to section 68(1) of the Motor Accidents Compensation Act 1999 (the Act). The Guidelines are issued to licensed insurers with respect to the manner in which insurers and those acting on their behalf are to deal with claims. They apply to claims arising from motor accidents occurring on or after 5 October 1999.

The Guidelines have been reviewed and amended by the Motor Accidents Authority (MAA) following consultation with:

  • Insurance Council of Australia Limited;
  • Council of the Bar Association and
  • Council of the Law Society

The Guidelines aim to promote the just and expeditious handling of motor accident claims by CTP insurers. The Guidelines should not be used as a substitute summary of an insurer’s obligations under the Act or be conclusive on the issue of claims handling practice. The Motor Accidents Compensation Act 1999 should always be referred to when clarifying an insurer’s obligations under the Act.

It is a condition of a CTP insurer’s licence that the insurer complies with the Guidelines. The MAA will review insurers’ compliance with the Guidelines and monitor the nature of complaints received by insurers and the MAA about claims handling practices.

Claims identified by an insurer as requiring treatment, rehabilitation or attendant care services will also be subject to the MAA’s Treatment, Rehabilitation and Attendant Care Guidelines.

Information about the operation of the Scheme, entitlements to compensation and the procedures for making a claim has been made more readily available to injured persons by operation of the Claims Advisory Service (1300 656 919), a division of the MAA.

General Principles

The implementation of the Claims Handling Guidelines requires demonstrated consideration and acceptance by insurers of the following general principles in relation to the management of claims:

  • The insurer should ensure ANFs and Claim Forms are provided promptly on request and free of charges or conditions
  • The insurer should ensure all correspondence is date stamped upon receipt
  • The insurer should ensure a copy of any written correspondence and records of all verbal communications are kept on the claim file
  • The insurer should endeavour to provide a claimant or injured person with relevant factual information in the insurer’s possession that will promote a just and expeditious resolution of the claim
  • The insurer should ensure that investigators and legal practitioners acting on its behalf, medico-legal practitioners and staff employed or contracted by the insurer operate in a professional and ethical manner
  • The insurer should attempt to resolve disputes in the first instance by ensuring their reasons for disputation are adequately communicated to the claimant and that, where appropriate, their internal complaints and dispute resolution procedures have been communicated to the claimant before referring the matter to the MAA’s Motor Accident Assessment Services (MAAS)
  • Insurers and their agents and contractors are expected to comply with applicable privacy legislation, particularly in relation to surveillance investigations. Privacy complaints received by the MAA may be referred to the appropriate body such as the NSW and Commonwealth Privacy Commissions
  • Insurers should co-operate with the MAA’s CAS, MAS and CARS officers, medical and claims assessors and the assessment process
  • Insurers should follow up delays in obtaining a response to requests for further and better particulars or offers of settlement by reviewing open claim files at intervals of no longer than 3 months

1. Defined Words

In these guidelines:

Claim form:

refers to the Personal Injury Claim Form or the Compensation to Relatives Claim Form approved by the MAA.

Complaint: 

refers to any expression of dissatisfaction with a product or service offered or provided or not provided. It does not include a request for service or information.

Days: 

refers to working days.

Dispute: 

refers to a matter where there is a disagreement with an insurer’s decision that may be referred to the insurer’s dispute resolution process (for example, where a claimant disagrees with an insurer’s decision that further treatment is not reasonable and necessary).

Insurer:refers to an insurer who is licensed by the MAA and provides (or has provided) CTP insurance in NSW since 5 October 1999 as well as a licensed insurer acting as agent for the Nominal Defendant.

2. Accident Notification Form (ANF)

2.1  The insurer will advise a person, who seeks to lodge an ANF where the vehicle held at fault in the accident is unidentified, that an ANF is not applicable and provide the person with a claim form. The insurer will also advise that the completed claim form should be forwarded to the MAA for allocation under the Nominal Defendant Scheme within 6 months of the date of the accident.

2.2  The insurer will advise the injured person within 5 days of receipt of the ANF if it is not substantially complete. This will not occur unless the information is clearly insufficient to enable the insurer to determine provisional liability.

2.3  The insurer will provide written advice to the injured person on whether or not provisional liability is accepted within 10 days of receipt of the ANF.

2.3.1 The insurer will provide written advice to injured passengers and pedestrians that provisional liability is accepted within 10 days of receipt of the ANF.

2.4  The insurer will advise the injured person upon receipt of the ANF, that it is not a claim and a claim form should be lodged within 6 months of the date of the accident if the injured person wants to claim additional damages, other than the treatment expenses and lost earnings covered by the ANF.

2.5  The insurer will pay the injured person’s expenses incurred for reasonable and necessary treatment and loss of earnings suffered within 6 months after the motor vehicle accident, up to an amount of $5000 (or such other amount as may be determined by the MAA).

The insurer is not required to pay treatment expenses in respect of treatment that does not accord with any existing relevant MAA Medical Guidelines. (Insurers are not restricted to paying within the MAA Medical Guidelines should they choose to pay in excess of the limits.)

2.5.1  The insurer will pay reasonable and necessary treatment expenses within 20 days of receipt of an account where provisional liability is accepted.

2.5.2  The insurer will pay accounts on the basis of the order in which the accounts are received.

2.6  The insurer will pay $32 for completion of the medical certificate on the ANF, within 20 days of receipt of an account (or any other amount prescribed by the MAA or the regulations). This amount is not to be included in the treatment expenses.

2.7  The insurer will respond promptly to reasonable requests for information and assistance in lodging an ANF. If the request is in writing this should be done within 5 days of the request and if by telephone, within 2 days.

2.8  The insurer will advise the injured person, where applicable, that they are nearing the dollar limit or expiration of the time limit and that a claim form (with or without a medical certificate) should be lodged within 6 months of the date of the accident for further payments.

2.9 The insurer may send generic information about making and resolving claims directly to the injured person, provided that a copy is also sent to the injured person’s legal representative if the injured person is legally represented.

3. Making Claims

3.1  The insurer will respond to the claimant’s reasonable requests for information and assistance in making a claim, including a Nominal Defendant claim where the motor vehicle is either not insured or not identified. If the request is in writing this should be done within 5 days of the request and if by telephone, within 2 days.

3.2  The insurer will, if rejecting a claim or explanation due to a breach of section 70, 72, 73 or 74 of the Act, advise the claimant in writing of the reasons for rejecting a claim or explanation.

3.2.1 The insurer will not reject a claim for lack of a medical certificate, where a medical certificate has already been provided with an ANF unless the claimant’s condition has changed or a claimant’s claim for injuries is additional to those advised by the medical certificate in the ANF.

4. Acknowledgement of Claims

4.1  The insurer will send to the claimant an acknowledgement letter within 5 days of receipt of a claim.

4.2  The insurer will advise the claimant in the acknowledgement letter that it will provide the claimant with a copy of the police report and copies of treatment providers' reports that the insurer has on file unless requested otherwise by the claimant.

4.3  The insurer, managing a Nominal Defendant claim, will advise the MAA of any related claim/s received from any other claimant in the accident that has not been allocated by the MAA, by forwarding a copy of the claim form to the MAA within 10 days of receipt of the related claim/s.

5. Claims Investigation and Liability

5.1  The insurer will, if required, request a police report of the accident within 5 days of receipt of a claim.

5.2  The insurer’s police liaison officer(s) will follow up delays in obtaining a police report if a police report is not received within 6 weeks following the initial request.

5.3  The insurer will provide a copy of the police report to the claimant prior to or with the Section 81 Notice. The insurer will provide the claimant with a copy of the police report within 20 days if it is obtained after the Section 81 Notice is issued to the claimant.

Section 81 Liability notices

5.4  The insurer must give written notice to the claimant indicating whether the insurer admits or denies liability for the claim as expeditiously as possible, and within 3 months of the date the claim form is received by the insurer (or by the Authority in the case of claims made against the Nominal Defendant).

5.5  Unless liability is wholly admitted, the notice must give sufficient detail to the claimant to enable the claimant to understand the extent to which liability, and each of the elements of liability, are admitted, and must refer to the reasons for that decision and the evidence that supports those reasons.

5.6  If the notice indicates that contributory negligence is a reason for not wholly admitting liability, then the insurer must advise the claimant in writing of the percentage of contributory negligence it says can be attributed to the claimant, and refer to the reasons for that decision and the evidence that supports the percentage of contributory negligence alleged.

5.7  A letter that gives notice of the admission or denial of liability within 3 months in accordance with section 81 and these guidelines, must be clearly identified as a Section 81(1) Notice.

Other Liability decisions

5.8  An insurer which fails to issue a notice in accordance with Section 81(1) must advise the claimant in writing whether the insurer admits or denies liability for the claim within 7 days of the insurer discovering the failure.

5.9  An insurer which admits or denies liability other than by a Section 81(1) notice must also:

5.9.1  unless liability is wholly admitted, give sufficient detail to the claimant to enable the claimant to understand the extent to which liability, and each of the elements of liability, are admitted, and refer to the reasons for that decision and the evidence that supports those reasons; and

5.9.2  if the insurer indicates that contributory negligence is a reason for not wholly admitting liability, advise the claimant in writing of the percentage of contributory negligence it says can be attributed to the claimant, and refer to the reasons for that decision and the evidence that supports the percentage of contributory negligence alleged.

6. Claims Investigation on behalf of Nominal Defendant

6.1 The insurer, managing a Nominal Defendant claim will, in respect of a vehicle that is unidentified, advise the claimant in writing of the claimant’s duty to make due search and inquiry to ascertain the identity of the vehicle alleged to have been at fault in the accident.

6.1.1 The insurer will advise the claimant in writing whether or not the claimant has satisfied due search and inquiry. The insurer will include with its advice reasons why it considers that a claimant has not satisfied due search and inquiry.

6.2  The insurer, managing a Nominal Defendant claim will, in respect of an interstate vehicle that is unregistered, obtain proof from the relevant interstate insurer/Authority that the vehicle was unregistered at the time of the accident.

6.3  The insurer, managing a Nominal Defendant claim will in respect of a vehicle that is unregistered, assess and document the merits of an action for recovery against the owner or driver of the unregistered vehicle at fault.

7. Investigations

7.1  The insurer will ensure that each investigator acting on its behalf, has a current licence as required under relevant State legislation.

7.2  The insurer will ensure that before statements are taken, the investigator informs the person being interviewed of his or her identity and the identity of the insurer for whom they are acting.

7.3  The insurer will ensure the investigator, interviewing a legally represented claimant, will only contact the claimant after advising the legal representative in advance.

7.4  The insurer will ensure the investigator provides a factual report and does not provide a legal opinion in their reports.

7.5  The insurer will ensure that surveillance is only permitted in places regarded as public or where the claimant, whilst on private property, is observable by members of the public going about their ordinary daily activities.

7.6  The insurer will ensure that surveillance investigators must not actively interfere with the claimant’s activities whilst under observation or interact with them so as to have an impact on their activities.

7.7  The insurer will ensure that surveillance must not involve any inducement, entrapment or trespass.

7.8  The insurer will ensure that surveillance is only permitted when there is evidence to indicate that the claimant is exaggerating or providing misleading information in relation to a claim or where the insurer reasonably believes that the claim is inconsistent with information in the insurer’s possession regarding the circumstances of the accident or medical evidence.

8. Contacting Legally Represented Claimants

8.1 The insurer will ensure all requests for information or advice are sent directly to the claimant’s legal representative.

In Guidelines 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4 the definition of claimant means the claimant only and not the claimant’s legal representative. If a claimant is legally represented the insurer:

8.2  may send generic information about making and resolving claims directly to a claimant, provided that a copy is also sent to the claimant’s legal representative.

8.3  may contact the claimant directly:

  • if requested to do so by the claimant, or
  • if there is no substantive reply by the claimant’s legal representative to the insurer’s offer of settlement within 10 days and an attempt has been made by the insurer to confirm the receipt of the settlement offer, or
  • if there is no substantive reply by the claimant’s legal representative to the insurer’s correspondence (excluding offer/s of settlement) within 20 days, and an attempt has been made by the insurer to confirm the receipt of the correspondence, or
  • to advise the claimant in addition to the claimant’s legal representative about the details of a medical appointment arranged by the insurer, or
  • in response to a complaint notified to the insurer by the claimant

8.4  may contact the claimant directly about their rehabilitation, however the insurer will prior to the first communication advise the claimant’s legal representative of intended communications.

9. Requests for Information

9.1 The insurer will, when the insurer or a solicitor acting on behalf of the insurer is requesting information, ensure all communications are:

9.1.1 written in plain English and

9.1.2 relevant and tailored to the claimant’s circumstances and

9.1.3 not duplicated, unless the information previously supplied is insufficient.

10. Medical Assessments

10.1  The insurer will, if necessary, request hospital discharge summaries or clinical notes and any treatment providers’ reports, within 10 days following receipt of a claim form.

10.2  The insurer will provide the claimant with copies of treatment providers’ reports within 20 days following receipt of each treatment providers' report. This requirement does not apply if the treatment provider has indicated in writing that this would be inappropriate.

10.3  The insurer will ensure that, wherever possible, any medical examination arranged by the insurer is at a time and place readily accessible to the claimant.

11. Payment of Expenses

11.1  The insurer is obliged to pay hospital, medical, respite and attendant care, rehabilitation and pharmaceutical expenses on an 'as incurred' basis once liability has been admitted pursuant to Section 83 of the Act.

However, the insurer is only obliged to pay for this type of expense when it is reasonable and necessary, properly verified, and relates to the injury caused by the owner or driver of the at-fault vehicle.

11.2  The insurer will ensure all reasonable and necessary expenses are paid within 20 days of receipt of the account.

11.3  The insurer will ensure all reasonable and necessary costs and expenses, including travel expenses, for rehabilitation, attendance at a medical examination arranged by the insurer or an assessment by MAS, are paid to the claimant within 20 days of receipt of the account.

11.4  The insurer, when it declines to pay for the claimant’s treatment expenses, will within 20 days of receipt of the account advise the claimant and service provider in writing clearly outlining the reasons why the insurer considers the treatment not to be reasonable and necessary, not properly verified or not related to the accident, and

11.4.1 The insurer will provide to the claimant a copy of the insurer's internal complaint and dispute resolution procedure, and the MAA brochure "Resolving Medical Disputes".

This requirement does not apply if the insurer has already provided the above information after declining to pay for this treatment.

12. Settlement

12.1  The insurer will make a reasonable offer of settlement to the claimant as required under section 82, unless the insurer wholly denies liability for the claim.

12.2.1  The insurer will, in a settlement offer, clearly state the separate components and amount for each head of damage offered and any relevant calculations.

12.2.2  The insurer will clearly indicate to the claimant prior to making a settlement offer or in a settlement offer, regardless of whether or not a claimant claims to be entitled to non economic loss (NEL), that:

  • the insurer believes the claimant is entitled to claim NEL, if the insurer considers the injured person’s degree of permanent impairment is greater than 10%, or
  • the insurer will ensure the matter is referred to MAS for assessment, if the insurer is unable to determine whether the claimant is entitled to claim NEL because the insurer is unsure whether the injured person’s degree of permanent impairment is greater than 10%.

12.2.3  When a claimant claims to be entitled to NEL but the insurer considers a claimant is not entitled to claim NEL because the injured person’s degree of permanent impairment is not greater than 10%, the insurer will, with an offer of settlement, clearly outline the reasons why the insurer considers the injured person’s degree of permanent impairment is not greater than 10%.

The explanation must be sufficient to enable the claimant to make an informed decision about whether to accept the insurer’s position or to seek to pursue the dispute at MAS. The explanation may include reference to the relevant provisions of the MAA Impairment Guidelines & AMA 4 Guides and any supporting evidence or materials where relevant. The insurer must provide to a claimant who is not legally represented, a copy of the MAA brochure "Resolving Permanent Impairment Disputes".

This requirement does not apply if the insurer has already provided the above information and the insurer still considers that the degree of permanent impairment is not greater than 10%.

12.3  The insurer will provide the claimant with a full list of paid and unpaid expenses on the file, at the time of making an offer of settlement and 24 hours prior to attending settlement conference, CARS assessment or court hearing. This requirement will not apply if the same information has already been provided in a previous offer of settlement.

12.4.1  The insurer will, as soon as practicable after making an offer of settlement to the claimant under Section 82:

  • arrange a settlement conference; and
  • advise the claimant of their obligation to participate in a settlement conference before the matter may be referred to CARS

12.4.2  If the claim is not settled at the settlement conference, the insurer must make an offer of settlement within 14 days after the settlement conference concludes.

12.5  The insurer will not pay any treatment expenses once a settlement agreement has been signed and prior to payment of settlement monies unless by agreement with the claimant.

12.6.1  The insurer will pay the settlement or CARS award within 20 days of receipt of signed documentation confirming the claimant’s acceptance of the settlement or acceptance of the CARS award. Otherwise, if the insurer is required by law to make a deduction from the settlement or CARS award (eg workers compensation, Centrelink or Medicare Australia recovery), the insurer will request such advice as to the amount of the deduction within 10 days of receipt of the signed documentation. In those circumstances, the settlement or CARS award will be paid within 20 days of receipt of all such advice confirming the deduction.

12.6.2  The insurer will pay interest on monies not paid in accordance with 12.6.1. The rate of interest is three-quarters of the rate prescribed for the purposes of section 101 of the Civil Procedure Act 2005.

13. Complaints

It is expected that the insurer's internal complaint and dispute resolution procedures will deal effectively with the majority of complaints.

The MAA’s Insurer Licensing & Performance Branch will generally handle complaints where the insurer’s internal complaint and dispute resolution procedures have failed to resolve a complaint.

Insurer Complaint and Dispute Resolution Procedures

13.1 The insurer must have documented internal complaint and dispute resolution procedures, which provide for a fair and timely method of handling and resolving complaints.

13.2 When a complaint is made the insurer will handle the complaint according to its complaint and dispute resolution procedures.

13.3 The insurer’s complaint and dispute resolution procedures are to be readily accessible to the public and provided free of charge or conditions when requested.

13.4 The minimum standards required for an insurer’s complaint and dispute resolution procedures include:

13.4.1 acknowledgement in writing of the complaint and provision of the insurer’s complaint and dispute resolution processes to be sent within 5 days. The acknowledgement letter must include the name and telephone number of an appropriate contact person.

13.4.2 the nomination of a complaint handler who possesses authority and independence to make a decision without referral.

13.4.3 the setting of reasonable time limits (which will be advised to the complainant) for the making of a decision.

13.4.4 the provision of written reasons for a decision and information on the availability of external complaint or dispute handling arrangements, including the role of the MAA if the claimant is dissatisfied with the result.

13.5 The insurer will keep a copy of complaints on the relevant claim file/s.

14. Insurer Reporting

14.1 The insurer will keep a record of all complaints handled by the insurer relating to claims (including complaints relating to claims made under the Motor Accidents Act 1988) and provide a summary report to the MAA of the complaints every 6 months. Reports under this guideline are to be furnished within 30 days at the end of each 6-month reporting period ending on 30 June and 31 December each year.

14.2 The insurer shall review and monitor its compliance with the Guidelines and prepare an annual report to the MAA on compliance with the Guidelines. Reports under this guideline are to be furnished within 30 days of the end of the reporting period ending on 31 December each year.

15. Monitoring

The MAA will monitor and review insurer compliance with the Guidelines by:

15.1 monitoring the nature of complaints received by the insurers and the MAA about claims management practices; and

15.2 auditing claim files and claims handling practices of licensed insurers, and

15.3 monitoring the insurers’ self-reports on compliance with the Guidelines.

16. Compliance with the Guidelines

Compliance with the Guidelines is a condition of a CTP insurer’s licence. A breach of a licence condition by an insurer is an offence and serious breaches may result in a:

  • letter of censure from the MAA;
  • civil penalty up to $50,000;
  • criminal penalty (100 penalty units);
  • suspension or cancellation of the insurer’s licence.

If such action is contemplated, the MAA will ensure that the affected insurer is provided with an opportunity to make full representations on the matter, in accordance with the MAA Regulatory and Enforcement Policy.


Initially issued 2000

Reissued: 1 July 2004; 18 September 2006; 1 July 2008; 1 October 2008, 1 May 2014