A = Attitudes and beliefs
- Belief that pain is harmful or indicates ongoing physical damage (resulting in fear of anything that leads to more pain and avoidance of activities expected to be painful).
- Belief that the injury must be diagnosed and treated first.
- Belief that one is unable to function in pain and pain relief must occur before attempting to return to normal activity including work.
- Expectation of increased pain with activity or work, lack of ability to predict personal capacity.
- The perception of the injury as a catastrophe, thinking the worst, misinterpreting bodily symptoms, assigning all problems to the injury.
- Belief that pain is uncontrollable.
- Passive, symptom-focused attitude to rehabilitation and return to work.